Akahada Yaki(赤膚焼:Akahada ware) ~ 250 years of phoenix ~

Traditional crafts

1.What is Akahada Yaki(Akahada ware)?

Akahada Yaki is a general term for pottery made in the hills of Gojoyama, Nara City, and there is no definition of this.

It is said that the name comes from the other name of Mt. Gojo, Mt. Akahada, or from the color of the soil that burns red, but there are various theories.

One of the seven Enshu kilns (seven kilns reportedly taught by Kobori Enshu, who was a famous tea master representing the beginning of Edo).

The famous phrase “Aotan Yoshi” in the Manyoshu is a makurakotoba for Nara.

Actually, it means “there is good soil suitable for grilling”.

In recent years, “Nara-e” bean dishes with Nara features such as shrines and temples have become popular, but not only bean dishes, but also works of various colors and shapes depending on the kiln, such as daily utensils, tea sets, sake sets, and rituals. Is being produced.

History

In 1786, a test kiln was built in the mansion of Rozaemon Uchino in Oorikan-cho, Koriyama, and Shigaraki potter Yaemon made pottery for four years, but there was no name yet.

Then, in the first year of Kansei (1789), a clan kiln climb was made on Mt. Akahada, Gojo Village.

The kiln was entrusted by a potter, Jibei Maruya, from Gojozaka, Kyoto, to make excellent pottery. Given, it became the beginning as Akahada Yaki.

However, after Homitsu’s death, he returned to the private sector.

Okuda Kishiro was listed in a group of cultural figures gathered around Homitsu, but eventually he made his own pottery and started as a potter in the Saidaiji dedication Raku ware tea bowl in 1836. Around (1850), he became a potter in his main business and spread the name of Akahagi Yaki as a master craftsman at the end of the Edo period.

By incorporating and developing Kyo Yaki technology, we have established the technique of Akahada ware that has been handed down to the present day.

It is also counted as one of the seven Enshu kilns that Kobori Enshu (Enshu) liked.

During the Kaei era, the original kiln was called the Naka kiln and was divided into three kilns in the east and west, and was called the “East kiln,” “Middle kiln,” and “West kiln.”

“East kiln” is a kiln that Sumiyoshiya Heizo’s son Iwakura went to school and worked as a kiln. ..

In the “Yamato Kokumei Ryu Magazine” published in 1884, the names of Kanjiro Yamaguchi, Jihei Furuse, and Chujiro Inoue are listed as Akahada ware potters.

However, in 1886 (Meiji 19), after the death of the 4th Jibei, the successor Tokujiro was still unable to respond at the age of 17, and the “East Kiln” Fusajiro took over the “Naka ​​Kiln”. I bought all the tools.

Soa and Torayoshi Ishikawa in the “East Kiln”, Jinzaburo Yamaguchi in the “Middle Kiln”, and Chujiro Inoue in the “West Kiln”.

However, it was affected by the post-war depression after World War I.

The “East Kiln” has a record of being succeeded by Torayoshi Ishikawa in 1890, but the “East Kiln” was abolished after the death of Torayoshi.

In the “Western Kiln”, Sobei III died in 1879, and there is a record that he lived with another family at the end of 1881 when he succeeded Tadajiro, but for a while. It was abandoned.

After the abolition of the “East Kiln”, a relative of the Furuse family bought back the “Naka ​​Kiln”, and Tokujiro, who worked in Osaka, was recalled. The “inside kiln” has been reopened.

In July 1941, the “Akakinyama Genki Kiln Exhibition” was held at Ginza Matsuya, but even in the explanation at that time, only one “middle kiln” remained. “it is written like this.

Registered in July 2007, the three kilns of Furuse Kosan Kiln, “Exhibition Hall and Old Workshop”, “Large Climbing Kiln”, and “Medium Climbing Kiln” are nationally registered tangible cultural properties and have been left since the Edo period. The large climbing kiln of the “Naka ​​kiln” is being restored with the aim of reusing it, and can be visited at the Furuse Kosan kiln.

Characteristic 

Akahada Yaki is well known for its reddish bowl with a milky white Hagi glaze and a painting called Nara-e.

The theory that Nara-e is based on Otogi-zoshi, or the picture scroll “Eingakyo” that explains the previous life and life of Shaka, is the Koriyama feudal lord Yanagisawa Kien. ) Is designed to fit the red flag-yaki vessel, and it is said that this source is in the lotus valve map of the lotus position of the Great Buddha of Todaiji Temple, but it is a common pattern and a delicate and childish composition. Skillfully brings out the simplicity of the skin.

The back of Akahada Yaki is engraved with “Akahadayama”.

In addition to the “Akahadayama” or “Akahata” stamps, the ones from the Furuse Kosan kiln, which has been a kiln since the Edo period, have a writer’s stamp and a kiln stamp.

2.Working process

① Dig out the soil

② Make clay

③ Make a shape

④ Dry

⑤ unglazed

⑥ Glaze

⑦ Main grill

⑧ Painting

It is completed with.

① Dig out the soil

From the white part of the mountain slope, the raw material soil is extracted.

②Make clay

Remove stones and dirt from the soil and make clay with the same grain size.
Wrap the clay in vinyl so that it will not dry out.

③Make a shape

There are two ways to make a shape, one is to use a potter’s wheel or a mold, and the other is to assemble clay in the shape of a board or string. This is where the clay is placed on a rotating table called the potter’s wheel.
I will make a shape while rotating the potter’s wheel.

④Dry

Remove the dish from the mold and then dry it.

⑤Unglazed

It is unglazed.

⑥Glaze

Apply glaze to the unglazed product. This glaze is black because it is made of ash. By applying glaze and then firing, you can make a strong and beautiful product. 

⑦Main grill

This kama is a climbing gama, which uses the mountain surface.
We use red pine trees for firewood. There is a lot of oil, so if you add firewood, you will get a black smolder.
The main firing takes about two days and a half. Of course, it keeps burning the fire at night.
The main firing is complete.

⑧Painting

Painting is done and everything is completed.

Source: See Nara University website
資料:奈良大学ホームページ参照

3.Traditional craftsman

Akiyama Oshio

4th year Versailles Festival Japanese tradition and cultural exchange exhibition participation exhibition (French Palais des Congrès)

7th year PARIS Peace Arts Festival PARIS Peace Arts Festival Grand Prize (Paris, France)

2012 Turkey Japan Contemporary Art World Exhibition Japan Turkey International Art Promotion Award (Istanbul, Turkey)

Akashiyaki Oshio Akiyama Exhibition

Akahada Yaki Oshio Akiyama tea pottery exhibition

Although only a few have been written here, he is a traditional craftsman representing Akahada ware, who is active not only in numerous exhibitions and awards throughout Japan, but also in the world.

http://www.akahadayaki.com/

4.Initiatives

Akahada Yaki is dotted with seven kilns in Nara City and Yamatokoriyama City.

One of them, Masayoshi Oshio, the eighth head of the kiln “Masato Kiln”, has won numerous awards at ceramic art exhibitions and craft art exhibitions.

Mr. Onishi Rakusai, a potter of the kiln “Kashiwa Kiln”, is a representative potter of Akahada ware, such as delivering his works to Kasuga Taisha Shrine, Yakushiji Temple, and Todaiji Temple.

Through pottery experience and tours, we are engaged in activities to make as many people as possible know and feel familiar with Akahada Yaki.

Impressions

It has been produced as a local industry, but it has not been established from the beginning.

In addition, Akahada Yaki was established and flourished by Okuda Kishiro.

However, at this time, or even before this, the problem of lack of successors may have already begun.

All kilns were closed in 1881.

Time has passed, and it has been since the time when a relative of the Furuse family bought back the pottery that was made around 1900.

The spirit of inheriting tradition has not changed in any era.

That thought creates value in the present age, and continues to create works that touch the hearts of modern people without degrading the quality of the current craftsmen.

Next time preview

Thank you for reading to the end (^^) /

Next time, I would like to post about ” Nara Zarashi “.

Let’s have a good trip!

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